Club Root Disease – Treatment & Control | Auscsc

club root disease

Maintaining a beautiful garden is in some ways similar to raising a loving family. Tender care is necessary not only to ensure that your garden looks fresh and beautiful but also to protect the plants from various diseases. Most homeowners cannot be expected to be experts in the area of plant protection and plant care.

Qualified and experienced horticulturists and professional gardeners can identify problems at first sight and initiate measures to stem the rot before a potential trouble impacts the whole garden. Club root is among common diseases that affect a variety of plants. Let us now focus on understanding Clubroot and means of preventing the disease from spreading.

What is club root?

Club root is a common disease that largely affects vegetable gardens that have plants from Brassicae family. In generic terms, this includes cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radishes, stocks, turnips, wallflowers, Brussels sprouts and the like. In the past, the disease was reckoned as a mould though it has now joined the ranks of what is known as Phytomyxea.

Detecting Clubroot

Malformation at the root of the plant on account of enhanced cell growth and division leading to galls appearing is the first sign of club root. The galls in turn tie up the nutrients and nutrients and water do not reach plant tissues above the ground level in severely infected conditions.

Infection can occur at varying stages of the plant growth and the impact consequently differs.

Since the infection, when noticed special care, you are better off getting professional advice to prevent a proliferation of the disease and take other corrective action needed to contain recurrence.
During the growth of brassicae crops, the roots tend to release chemicals known as exudates aiding germination of spores that lie dormant. Post-germination, the pathogens gain mobility and transition to the root hairs. Once infected, the root grows abnormally and when the affected plants finally decay they release spores back to the soil and disease cycle thus continues.

Effective Treatment

It is extremely difficult to manage club root and the best of controlling is by rotating the crops to prevent spreading. This can be achieved by choosing cruciferous plants for affected areas once every 3 or 4 years.

Acidic soil promotes the growth of Clubroot and therefore enhancing pH level to about 7.2 could be an effective means of controlling club root. Calcitic lime is often the best means of raising pH except in conditions where the soil has low magnesium. In low magnesium conditions, dolomitic lime could be more effective.

Where feasible liming the soil at least 6 weeks ahead of planting time is considered beneficial and care should be taken to prevent raising the pH to very high levels. High alkalinity in the soil can impact the growth of other non-cruciferous plants.

Cleaning and disinfecting garden tools is one way to prevent spreading of the spores to areas free from the infection. Moving the contaminated soil or infected plants from one part of the garden to another (includes mud on your shoe soles) could lay out an invitation for more trouble. Take care to prevent soil runoff during a rainy season.

Certain types of fungicides also tend to promote club root disease. Most chemicals are also resistant to the club root disease and your only option may be to pull and, dispose of the affected plants as early as possible. Aggressive action is by far the only means of preventing the disease from spreading.

While removing the affected plants, you should dig around the plant and ensure that the root system is completely removed so that the roots do not break up promoting further spread. The plants removed must be discarded safely and never added to your compost pile.
Water, wind and garden tools aid spreading of fungal spores.

Club root disease can develop due to a wide array of conditions. However, low level of soil pH and excess moisture are the main contributors. Remember that the spores can remain active in the ground for as long as ten years.

As you have seen, raising the pH level in the soil is an effective measure in controlling club root disease. However, applying lime to achieve this, has its share of associated health risks and therefore a seasoned professional gardener is always preferred to take charge. Professionals are better equipped to handle these hazardous chemicals and also make a more informed decision about the issues affecting your garden, including the soil conditions.

Euro Solar – A decade of Sustained Service to Australians

Euro Solar roof mount and rack Panels

After a modest beginning about a decade ago in 2008, with only four employees and a modest warehouse, Euro Solar has today grown to be the driving force behind the Australian solar power industry. When we examine this strident growth, we do come across instances where Euro Solar has attracted negative press and suffered from its consequences too. What is important however is that the company has weathered those onslaughts successfully to become the largest solar panel installer and supplier in Australia as they are poised to enter their 10th successful year of service to the Australian solar industry.
500,00 solar panels installed by Euro Solar
Over the short space of 9 years, Euro Solar has risen to be the most trusted and largest solar installer and supplier in Australia. Today, Euro Solar boasts of no less than 500,000 solar panels installed across Euro Solar has always focused on providing its customers with solar panels of high efficiency and high-quality inverters to optimise return on investment in comparison to conventional sources of energy. The motto has always been providing quality that the customers can TRUST and prices that are just unbeatable.
The homework I did

When I set out exploring various options to have a rooftop solar installation for my Sydney home, I had examined multiple vendors and their standing in the market. The overview of Euro Solar I have mentioned above was culled from various sources including the company’s websites. Admittedly, at first sight, everything was not very rosy about Euro Solar, and I found a mixed basket of good and bad experiences cited by customers from across Australia. But, I also found a common thread running among most of these reviews, complaints and EuroSolar recommendations. Euro Solar did offer a very competitive price, and the performance of their products either exceeded or was very close to the claims made by the company. Therefore, I had to take a balanced view to forming an opinion about the reliability of the enterprise.

Understanding the economics
I was also aware that the cost of conventional energy would be at least twice that I am paying today and I must, therefore, tap into the cheaper alternative of solar energy sooner than later. Therefore, my investment decision was also aided by the future savings that I would make from meeting the chunk of my energy needs from solar power. Broadly, my expectation was to get at least 80% of my energy requirement from solar and draw the rest from the grid. After elaborate considerations including projected future needs, we decided that a 3kW system would be adequate for the needs of my family.
Lowest price guarantee from Euro Solar
When it came to comparing prices, one thing that attracted my attention was the ‘lowest price guarantee’ given by Euro solar. This company agreed not just to match a competitor’s price but also knock off 10% if I provided a written quote from another competitor for comparable equipment and services. Well, that was a gritty commitment in bold letters, and I had some work to do before invoking that clause. However, I could not gain much from this offer because the competition did not give me the opportunity and the lowest quote I received was from Euro Solar.
Euro Solar provided tremendous help with the numbers
I am not an expert with the figures and therefore needed help figuring out the economics of a 3kW system for my home. Euro Solar was very helpful in this regard. One of their representatives spent about 2 hours explaining to me how the whole process worked. He showed me that unless I added more power guzzling gadgets to what I already had, from the 3rd year onwards, I could, in fact, be making some money by transferring excess power produced to the grid. In other words, this meant that there would be no more energy bills and I could be getting small sums of money back from the utility company. One change that I made based on the advice given by Euro Solar representative was to choose a 3.25kW system instead of the 3kW I had originally planned.
My price
Most competitors quoted between $5K and $6K for the 3.25kW system specifications I had worked out in consultation with Euro Solar. Euro Solar was a tad below $3K, and that turned out to be the best deal I could get on the given day. The next major task was doing the arithmetic about the feed-in tariff, incentive/subsidies that would accrue to me and all. As I said earlier, Euro Solar was happy to do all that homework for me, and we signed the contract.
I am a happy customer for Euro Solar
Installation of my system was completed in 5 days, and on day seven after the installation process started, I was using solar energy! Another factor that impressed me was that my home, including the rooftop, was thoroughly cleaned by Euro Solar personnel, leaving absolutely no mess around for me to take charge later. My wife and I appreciated this because cleaning up would have been a real bother for both of us.
Endnote
In the end, you can see that I am the happy customer and my choice of Euro Solar was right. The upfront cost of installing a solar power system continues to remain a major concern for most homeowners, and as my experience shows, Euro Solar does offer the best possible price in the market at any given point of time. One question that might still haunt some of the readers may be the volley of negative reviews that Euro Solar has in the digital world. While I cannot opine on why a particular customer had a bad experience with Euro Solar, I can only surmise that individual circumstances vary vastly and our ability to take an informed decision would weigh in finally. The 500,000 panels that the company has installed so far was an active element that helped me with my final decision.
Given my experience, I won’t wink an eye to recommend Euro Solar to any customer planning to install a solar power system for his/her home in Australia.

Roofing options for Australian home owners – the Pros and Cons

The storm is a significant threat to Australian roofs, particularly in areas like Sydney and Melbourne; therefore roofing options must carefully factor in this risk. Australian homeowners looking for new or replacement roofing materials today enjoy a wider choice than before. For those looking for metal sheets, COLORBOND®, as a brand has gained immense popularity on account of its light weight and versatility in application. The pros and cons of some of the roofing options re-explained below:

Tiles

Tiles are very versatile and come in different colours and textures. Tiles have a lifespan of about 50 years and significant resistance to fire which could be particularly advantageous in areas prone to bushfire. However, tiles are heavier and some homes may additional load bearing supports. Installation cost for tiles is also relatively high, and its tendency to shift can pave a way to leaks. However, with proper maintenance, you can be free from issues such as leaks.

COLORBOND® – Metal Roofing

Although concrete tiles are still the preferred choice for many homeowners, there has been a significant shift towards COLORBOND®.
On account of many advantages of the product when compared to most other options. Though the origin of COLORBOND® is traced to the United States of America, many Australian businesses have successfully refined the technology behind bonding paint to galvanised base. This has resulted in a roofing option that is significantly corrosion resistant and non-combustible. COLORBOND® also resists chipping, peeling, and cracking. The aesthetic appeal for multiple applications is another positive attribute of COLORBOND®.
However, when it comes to cost effectiveness, COLORBOND® loses out to concrete tiles. Metal sheets typically last about 30 years, and when you consider the higher installation cost for metal sheets, other options like tiles score over metal sheets. Certain metal roofs also do not allow ceiling insulation, and that could add to the cons.

Shingles

With Shingles, your home gets a traditional look, and you have the ability to choose from different materials and even combine them for enhanced aesthetics. Most conventional shingles include asphalt and fibreglass. Shingles are lightweight and installed over a plyboard base. This will help you save a significant amount of money on expensive structural walls. Regarding installation, shingles are pretty easy to handle, and therefore you can look at a lower installation cost compared to most other roofing options. Shingles are also available in a wide range of colours and styles. The lifespan of shingles is about 30 years and repairing shingles is never a terrible job.

Green Roofs

Construction of green roofs typically involves constructing an insulating layer, waterproofing, plants and pebbles. A green roof stands as a garden atop your roof. While green roofs are increasingly prevalent in Europe, Australians are now adopting green roofs in new constructions at an enhanced pace. Adelaide Zoo is at the forefront of green roofing in Australia and owns and maintains several green roofs in that region.
Green roofs bring several benefits to the homeowner. It helps in preserving space, controls water runoff and reduces the energy costs for the building while adding to the aesthetic appeal and attraction for wildlife. It helps in providing additional insulation and cooling the region. Significant reduction of carbon footprint is another advantage of green roofs and this in turn impacts of maintaining the building.
The cost of green roofs can vary depending on individual circumstances. Presently there is no evidence on the life span of green roofs.

Slate roofs

Slate represents laminated rock that can be cut into thin sheets of uniform thickness. The durability of slate is remarkable and can often exceed a lifetime. Slate is, however, more expensive when compared to asphalt. Slate roofs are pretty costly to install, and the fixed cost can perch between $10 and $20 depending on a lot of slate roofing you select. Difficulties of the roof and your physical location can also impact costs. But, the timeless beauty and long life span of slate roofs make it a sought after option for some homeowners.

Cedar Shakes

Natural beauty and gracious ageing into an appealing greyish silver are the major pros of cedar shakes. Cedar lasts long and outlives most other roofing materials by at least a decade. Cedar resists high winds, and this could be particularly advantageous in some regions across Australia. Energy efficiency of cedar will have a beneficial on the cost of energy consumed by homes with a cedar roof. The initial cost of cedar roofing is higher compared to other options like asphalt. But, when we consider the long life cycle of the product, your cost per year will peg closer to the cheaper options. The need for regular maintenance is another drag with cedar shakes.

Solar Energy – Why Sun Is Considered As An Exceptional Energy Source

earth

Did you know that the Solar Energy potential of the earth is about 50, 000 Exajoules annually – which is currently hundred times more than the total world energy consumption! Yes, with the help of science and technology, we can harness the exceptional energy of the powerful sun, to make an efficient, inexhaustible, independent, versatile and sustainable source of renewables, which also has various associated long-term benefits as well.

Solar Energy- The Popular Harnessing Techniques

Regions with plenty of sunshine can harness the Solar Energy with the help of popular active techniques like Solar Photo Voltaic Cells (or Solar Panels) and Solar Water (Thermal) Heating. The Solar Photo Voltaic Cells (SPV Cells) are made of semiconductors like mono or polycrystalline silicon. When the rays of the sun hit the surface of these SPV Cells with the help of mirrors and lenses, the loose electrons from the cells are put to work and their flow through the cell, generates electricity. On a commercial scale, Solar Thermal Power Plants are installed wherein the sun’s energy is first concentrated to bring water to boil. Next, the steam generated is further used to drive a turbine to generate electricity, much like hydroelectricity generation.

How it is both healthy and environmentally friendly?

Let’s make hay while the sun shines! Quite literally, the sun’s energy is indefinitely renewable and is estimated to be one of the world’s cheapest source of energy. More importantly, it is unquestionably one of the ‘cleanest’ sources of energy.

  • Unlike coal or thermal electricity, solar power generation does not emit carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases which can cause global warming.
  • It uses little or no water in its production. It only uses a minimal amount of steam, which remains unpolluted and reusable.
  • It also does not produces noxious chemicals and gases in the environment like nitrogen oxides, mercury, lead and other toxic materials which can affect human beings, soil and wildlife.
  • Solar Energy doesn’t cause noise pollution.
  • They count on less associated safety risks and have a lower environmental footprint.

Availability, Growth and Scope in Australia

Currently, Australia produces only about 2.5% of electricity via solar energy (standing at 8th Rank on a global scale). Australia receives about 4kWh/m2 at an average of solar radiation per day (exceeding that of Russia, Europe and half of North America), during the winter months. Hence, with the accurate calculations applied, Solar Energy in the upcoming years can replace ~50% of the current total household energy requirements of the country.

Some of the things that need to be considered before installing Solar Power Stations:

  • Installations and Time Lag charges can be high- thus; initial costs (unless the subsidy is provided) may be equivalent to conventional sources.
  • It can be installed in only those areas that receive ample amount of sunlight.
  • During the night, the solar energy is stored in batteries. Unless safe disposal practices (end-of-cycle recycling) are applied, such batteries and none silicon solar cells can be a load to the landfills.
  • Efficiency is 14-25% lower than other sources of energy.
  • The power output of solar power stations is relatively much lower than the conventional modes when compare the area required.

With the Australian’s Government Solar Credit Program (alongside the Renewable Energy Target 2020), one can acquire rebates of more than A$ 50, 000 at an average. The Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET) is designed to provide at least 45, 000 GW- hours (20% of total electricity generated) of clean energy to Australia till 2020. The Council of Sydney has also planned to provide 100% renewable energy by 2030. Euro Solar Group is working in Australia to create awareness for solar energy. This is due to concerns about damaged ozone layer in Australia. You can learn more about their products and causes by visiting here.

The development and installation of mega solar energy power plants require three crucial things – abundant insolation, large flat land area and tailored transmission lines. The construction of a small 1MW solar energy power plant would require an area of about 25, 000 m2. The area should also be flat and not obstructed by mountains or other large structures that can block the sunlight. Transmission of electricity from solar power plants requires high voltage transmission lines, and the receiver shouldn’t be too far from the source.

Moreover, and quite usually, solar energy cells produce excessive electricity than that is required. Selling of this extra energy from the grid can help you earn big revenues. Also, reliable solar installations are virtually maintenance free for at least 20-25 years. Due to innovation in technology, government support, environment friendliness and popular demand, the cost of solar panel installations is taking a steep descent and will continue to drop further. Thus, with relatively straightforward and hassle-free technology and enough initial patience, harnessing solar energy is undoubtedly fruitful, economical and has the capacity to meet fifteen times the current global world energy requirements.